|Notes on presence status||Marine species are considered ubiquitous around the Dutch Caribbean by Macrae et al (2021), but this species has not been recorded yet on Aruba, Bonaire, Sint Maarten and Saba.|
- Hoek, C. van den, Breeman, A.M. 1978. The distribution of Algae, Corals and Gorgonians in relation to depth, light attenuation, water movement and grazing pressure in the fringing coral reef of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Aquatic Botany 5: 1-46.
- Hoeksema, B.W., Moorsel, G.W.N.M. van 2016. Stony corals of St. Eustatius. In: Marine biodiversity survey of St. Eustatius, Dutch Caribbean, 2015. 32-37. Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, and ANEMOON Foundation, Bennebroek.
- MacRae, D.M. & De Meyer, K. 2020. Dutch Caribbean conservation species list. Using management effectiveness to strengthen species conservation in the Caribbean.
- Vermeij, M.J.A. 2002. Evolutionary Ecology of the coral genus Madracis - an illustration of the nature of species in scleractinian corals. 263. FNWI: Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED).