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Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis

Photo: Hans Smulders

Legislation and policy ?

SPAW Protocol species of SPAW Annex II


  • MacRae, D.M. & De Meyer, K. 2020. Dutch Caribbean conservation species list. Using management effectiveness to strengthen species conservation in the Caribbean.
  • SPAW Protocol 1990. Protocol concerning specially protected areas and wildlife to the convention for the protection and development of the marine environment of the wider Caribbean region. The Caribbean Environment Programme. [link]